Mitochondria are small termed to be very tiny organelles that are mostly found in almost all organisms that are eukaryotic in nature. They are said to have a light of o.5um to around 10um and the diameter of around 1um.Moreover, they are modified to carry out some activities in the body of the organism hence said to be the main factories that generate energy for the cell. Additionally, they are found in cytoplasm acting as the main site for the cellular respiration. Moreover, the mitochondria generate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and various organic fuels such as the fats and the simple sugars during the cellular respiration process. From The mitochondrial features, it is said to be unique in that its membrane which is double membrane sometimes reproduces through the process of splitting itself, besides it contains its own DNA.
Looking at their shape they are in sausage form and they move around. Besides, sometimes their shape changes and they also divide with time. They are modified making them be among the distinct organelles due to its two membranes that are the outer and the inner one. The outer membrane is set in a way that it is very smooth and its main function is to limit organelles. Furthermore, it is very permeable to only small solutes that include the ions and the molecules. Moreover, it acts in blocking the passing of some materials such as the macromolecules and the protein.
In addition, the inner membrane has its features that help it carry out some function.It has the cristae which are formed when the mitochondrial fold itself into a shelf like structures. The main function of the cristae is to maintain some part in the cell to remain closed since it does not even allow the passage of any materials whether the small or big. The folding which is many in number facilitate the mitochondria in carrying out its function in that it helps in creating a large surface area that facilitates the mitochondria to carry out the respiration.
From the inner and the outer membrane, the mitochondria are divided into two main compartments whereby the area that is enclosed by inner membrane is referred to as the mitochondrial matrix and it is the place that most of the metabolic processes and steps of the cellular respiration takes place. Additionally, the inter membrane space is also said to reflect the cytosol which is the solute composition because it is always permeable to solute molecules which are very small. Additionally, the inter membrane space is said to contain some group of the small enzyme due to its nature of not being able to allow the passing of the macromolecules. In the mitochondrial matrix, there is also the enzyme that plays the roles of catalyzing the metabolic process that takes place during cellular respiration. Moreover, in the inner membrane, there are some enzymes which are embedded in there.
Additionally, the number of mitochondria in every cell or organism varies depending on the functions of the cells and the type of the tissue. For example, in the sperm cell, there can be many mitochondria while in certain algae such as the green algae have very little due to the activity of the cell. Therefore, the number can be said to vary depending on the process and function of the cell. Additionally mitochondrial in most of the unspecialized cell they are found in the cytoplasm although unevenly distributed. However, in most organs and cell where the activation process takes place, they are many to facilitate the activities, for example in the cardiac muscle. For example looking at human being the mitochondria are said to be inherited from the mother. Moreover taking in mammals most mitochondria in the sperm cells are said and proven to be destroyed, example looking at human being the mitochondria are said to be inherited from the mother. Besides, taking in mammals most mitochondria in the sperm cells are said and proven to be destroyed during fertilization by the egg cell. Thus through the mitochondrial DNA that is found in the maternal substances and they are inherited it facilitates in carrying out of the genealogical research in case they want to trace some maternal lineages.
Furthermore, the mitochondria have the matrix which is semi fluid and is found in the inner part. The semi fluid is known as the matrix and its main activity is to facilitate the Krebs and the citric cycle. Moreover, it has some dissolved carbon dioxide, water, dissolved oxygen and some of the intermediates which are recyclable in nature. Additionally, it is the substance that contains the mitochondrial ribosomes, the tRNAs and the mitochondrial copies of the DNA.
Therefore, since mitochondria contain some DNA they are also able and responsible for inheriting some of the cell characters. For example, the type of the inheritance that takes place in the mitochondria is usually the independent of the cytoplasmic inheritance due to its nuclear genes. Therefore, mitochondria are believed to be among the functional organelles in the human body that help and facilitates in various activities that take place in the eukaryotic cells such as converting organic material into energy which is produced in form of the ATP hence referred to as the main power house of many cells. Additionally, it synthesizes the steroids and the hems leading to elongation of the acids which are fatty in nature. Besides, it carries out the apoptosis which is the scientific activity of the programmed cell death, moreover, it plays a vital role in carrying out the regulation of the cellular redox and finally it stores and releases calcium. Therefore due to many functions that are carried by the mitochondria, it can be said to be among an essential organelles in the eukaryotic cells.
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